Plotina - Roman Empress: 105-122 A.D. - wife of Trajan
Bronze 19mm (4.19 grams) of Sardes in Lydia
Reference: RPC III 2397; SNG München 518.
ΠΛΩTЄINA CЄBACTH, Draped bust right.
CAPΔIANΩN, Pelops riding horse right, brandishing spear.
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In Greek mythology, Pelops (Greek: Πέλοψ), was king of Pisa in the Peloponnesus. His father, Tantalus, was the founder of the House of Atreus through Pelops's son of that name.
He was venerated at Olympia, where his cult developed into the founding myth of the Olympic Games, the most important expression of unity, not only for the Peloponnesus, "island of Pelops", but for all Hellenes. At the sanctuary at Olympia, chthonic night-time libations were offered each time to "dark-faced" Pelops in his sacrificial pit (bothros) before they were offered in the following daylight to the sky-god Zeus (Burkert 1983:96).
Sardis or Sardes was an ancient city at the location of modern Sart (Sartmahmut before 19 October 2005) in Turkey's Manisa Province. Sardis was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, one of the important cities of the Persian Empire, the seat of a proconsul under the Roman Empire, and the metropolis of the province Lydia in later Roman and Byzantine times. As one of the Seven churches of Asia, it was addressed by the author John of the Book of Revelation in the Holy Bible in terms which seem to imply that its population was notoriously soft and fainthearted. Its importance was due, first to its military strength, secondly to its situation on an important highway leading from the interior to the Aegean coast, and thirdly to its commanding the wide and fertile plain of the Hermus.
Plotina - Augusta: 105-122 A.D.
Wife of Trajan
Aunt of Matidia
Sister-in-Law of Marciana
'Pompeia Plotina Claudia Phoebe Piso or Potius piolet (d. 121/122) was a Roman Empress and wife of Roman Emperor Trajan. She was renowned for her interest in philosophy, and her virtue, dignity and simplicity. She was particularly devoted to the Epicurean philosophical school in Athens, Greece. Through her influence, she provided Romans with fairer taxation, improved education, assisted the poor and created tolerance in Roman society.
Plotina was born and was raised in Tejada la Vieja (Escacena del Campo), Spain, during the reign of Roman Emperor Nero (reigned 54–68). She was the daughter of Lucius Pompeius and Plotia, who had extensive political, family and friendship connections. Trajan married her before his accession. Although they had a happy marriage, they had no known children. In 100 Trajan awarded her with title of Augusta, but she did not accept the title until 105. Plotina did not appear on the coinage until 112.
Trajan and Plotina became the guardians of the future Roman Emperor Hadrian. Hadrian was about age 10 or 11 when he lost his father, who was a first cousin to Trajan (Trajan’s father and Hadrian’s paternal grandmother were brother and sister). Plotina was fond of Hadrian and strongly encouraged his adoption by the dying Trajan. The adoption occurred at Selinunte in Cilicia, in August 117. When Plotina died she was deified. Hadrian built a temple in her honor at Nîmes.
Trajan - Roman Emperor : 98-117 A.D.
Caesar: 97 A.D. (under Nerva) | Augustus: 98-117 A.D.
| Adopted son of Nerva | Son of Trajan Pater | Husband of Plotina | Brother of Marciana | Uncle of Matidia | Grand-uncle of Sabina |
Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus, commonly known as Trajan (18 September, 53 – 8 August, 117), was a Roman Emperor who reigned from AD 98 until his death in AD 117. Born Marcus Ulpius Traianus into a non-patrician family in the Hispania Baetica province (modern day Spain), Trajan rose to prominence during the reign of emperor Domitian, serving as a general in the Roman army along the German frontier, and successfully crushing the revolt of Antonius Saturninus in 89. On September 18, 96, Domitian was succeeded by Marcus Cocceius Nerva, an old and childless senator who proved to be unpopular with the army. After a brief and tumultuous year in power, a revolt by members of the Praetorian Guard compelled him to adopt the more popular Trajan as his heir and successor. Nerva died on January 27, 98, and was succeeded by his adopted son without incident.
As a civilian administrator, Trajan is best known for his extensive public building program, which reshaped the city of Rome and left multiple enduring landmarks such as Trajan's Forum, Trajan's Market and Trajan's Column. It was as a military commander however that Trajan celebrated his greatest triumphs. In 101, he launched a punitive expedition into the kingdom of Dacia against king Decebalus, defeating the Dacian army near Tapae in 102, and finally conquering Dacia completely in 106. In 107, Trajan pushed further east and annexed the Nabataean kingdom, establishing the province of Arabia Petraea. After a period of relative peace within the Empire, he launched his final campaign in 113 against Parthia, advancing as far as the city of Susa in 116, and expanding the Roman Empire to its greatest extent. During this campaign Trajan was struck by illness, and late in 117, while sailing back to Rome, he died of a stroke on August 9, in the city of Selinus. He was deified by the Senate and his ashes were laid to rest under Trajan's Column. He was succeeded by his adopted son (not having a biological heir) Publius Aelius Hadrianus—commonly known as Hadrian.
As an emperor, Trajan's reputation has endured - he is one of the few rulers whose reputation has survived the scrutiny of nineteen centuries of history. Every new emperor after him was honoured by the Senate with the prayer felicior Augusto, melior Traiano, meaning "may he be luckier than Augustus and better than Trajan". Among medieval Christian theologians, Trajan was considered a virtuous pagan, while the 18th century historian Edward Gibbon popularized the notion of the Five Good Emperors, of which Trajan was the second.