1953 PANAMA 1/4 BALBOA 50th Anniversary of Republic Founding Silver Coin i53793
1953 PANAMA 1/4 BALBOA 50th Anniversary of Republic Founding Silver Coin i53793
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1953 PANAMA 1/4 BALBOA 50th Anniversary of Republic Founding Silver Coin i53793

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Seller's Description

Item: i53793
 
Authentic Coin of:

Panama
50th Anniversary of the Republic
1953 Silver 1/4 Balboa 24mm (6.18 grams) 0.900 Silver  (0.1797 oz. ASW)
Reference: KM #11.1
 UN CUARTO DE BALBOA CINCUENTENARIO, Bust of Balboa left.
REPUBLICA PANANA LEY 0.900 GR. 6.25 around the Coat of Arms of Panama.

You are bidding on the exact item pictured,  provided with a Certificate of Authenticity and Lifetime Guarantee of  Authenticity.

Panama, officially  the Republic of Panama, is the southernmost country of Central America and the whole of North America.

Flag Coat of arms

Situated on the isthmus connecting North and South America, it  is bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean to the north and the Pacific Ocean to  the south. The capital and largest city is Panama City, whose metro area is home to nearly  half of the country's 3.6 million people.

Panama was inhabited by several indigenous tribes prior to settlement by the  Spanish in the 16th century. It broke with Spain in 1821 and joined a union of Nueva Granada, Ecuador, and Venezuela named the Republic of Gran Colombia. When Gran Colombia dissolved in  1831, Panama and Nueva Granada remained joined, eventually becoming the Republic  of Colombia. With the backing of the United States, Panama seceded from Colombia  in 1903, allowing the Panama Canal to be built by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers between 1904 and  1914. In 1977, an agreement was signed for the total transfer  of the Canal from the United States to Panama by the end of the 20th century,  which culminated on 31 December 1999.

Revenue from canal tolls continues to represent a significant portion of  Panama's GDP, although commerce, banking, and tourism are major and growing  sectors. Panama has the second largest economy in Central America  and it is also the fastest growing economy and the largest per capita consumer  in Central America. In 2013, Panama ranked 5th among Latin American countries  in terms of the Human Development Index, and 59th in the world.  Since 2010, Panama remains the second most competitive economy in Latin America,  according to the World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness  Index. Covering around 40 percent of its land area, Panama's jungles are home to  an abundance of tropical plants, animals and birds – some of them to be found  nowhere else in the world.


Balboa.jpgVasco  Núñez de Balboa (c. 1475 – around January 12–21, 1519) was a Spanish explorer, governor, and conquistador. He is best known for having  crossed the Isthmus of Panama to the Pacific Ocean in 1513, becoming the first  European to lead an expedition to have seen or reached the Pacific from the New World.

He traveled to the New World in 1500 and, after some exploration,  settled on the island of Hispaniola. He founded the settlement of Santa María la Antigua del Darién in  present-day Panama in 1510, which was the first permanent European settlement on the mainland of the Americas (a settlement by Alonso de Ojeda the previous year at San  Sebastián de Urabá had already been abandoned).

Early life

Balboa was born in Jerez de los Caballeros, Spain. He was a descendant of the lord mason of  the castle of Balboa, which is located in northwestern Spain. His mother was the  Lady de Badajoz, and his father was the hidalgo (nobleman), Nuño Arias de Balboa.  Little is known of his early childhood except that he was the third of four boys  in his family. During his adolescence, he served as a page and squire to Don Pedro de Portocarrero, lord of Moguer.

Early career

Spanish colonization of the Americas
Antique map of the Americas, also showi; background-color:#A0522D;"
 
Inter caetera
Pacific Northwest
California
Chile
Colombia
Florida
Guatemala
Petén
Aztec Empire
Inca Empire
Yucatán
Conquistadores
Christopher Columbus
Alonso de Ojeda
Diego de Almagro
Pedro de Alvarado
Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar
Sebastián de Belalcázar
Francisco Vásquez de Coronado
Hernán Cortés
Luis de Carabajal y Cueva
Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada
Juan Ponce de León
Francisco de Montejo
Pánfilo de Narváez
Juan de Oñate
Francisco de Orellana
Francisco Pizarro
Hernando de Soto
Pedro de Valdivia
Juan Pardo
Tristán de Luna y Arellano
Vasco Núñez de Balboa
 
 
 
 
 

In 1500, motivated by his master after the news of Christopher Columbus' voyages to the New World became known, he decided to embark on  his first voyage to the Americas, along with Juan de la Cosa, on Rodrigo de Bastidas' expedition. Bastidas had a  license to bring back treasure for the king and queen, while keeping four-fifths  for himself, under a policy known as the Quinto Real, or "royal fifth."[citation  needed] In 1501, he crossed the Caribbean coasts from the east of Panama, along the Colombian coast, through the Gulf of Urabá toward Cabo de la Vela. The expedition continued to  explore the north east of South America, until they realized they did not have  enough men and sailed to Hispaniola.

With his share of the earnings from this campaign, Balboa settled in  Hispaniola in 1505, where he resided for several years as a planter and pig  farmer. He was not successful in this enterprise, however, and ended up in debt.  Finally, he was forced to abandon life on the island.

In 1508, the king of Spain, Ferdinand II "The Catholic", launched the conquest of Tierra Firme (the area roughly corresponding to  the Isthmus of Panama). He created two new  territories in the region between El Cabo de la Vela (near the eastern border of  Colombia) and El Cabo de Gracias a Dios (the border between Honduras and Nicaragua). The Gulf of Urabá became the border  between the two territories: Nueva Andalucía to the east, governed by Alonso de Ojeda, and Veragua to the west, governed by Diego de Nicuesa.

In 1509, wishing to escape his creditors in Santo Domingo, Balboa set sail as a stowaway, hiding inside a barrel together with  his dog Leoncico, in the expedition commanded by the Alcalde Mayor  of Nueva Andalucía, Martín Fernández de Enciso, whose mission it  was to aid Alonso de Ojeda, his superior. De Ojeda, together with seventy men,  had founded the settlement of San Sebastián de Urabá in Nueva Andalucía, on  the location where the city of Cartagena de Indias would later be built.  However, the settlers encountered numerous warlike natives living in the area,  who used poisoned weapons, and de Ojeda was injured in the leg. A short time  later, de Ojeda sailed for Hispaniola, leaving the colony under the supervision  of Francisco Pizarro, who, at that time, was only  a soldier waiting for Enciso's expedition to arrive. De Ojeda asked Pizarro to  leave some men in the settlement for fifty days and, if no help arrived at the  end of that time, to use all possible means to get back to Hispaniola.

Before the expedition arrived at San Sebastián de Urabá, Fernández de Enciso  discovered Balboa aboard the ship, and threatened to leave him at the first  uninhabited island they encountered; he later thought better of this and decided  that Balboa's knowledge of that region, which he had explored eight years  before, would be of great utility. This, in addition to the crew's pleas for his  life, left Fernández de Enciso with no choice but to spare Balboa and keep him  aboard. Moreover, both agreed on removing de Nicuesa as governor of Veragua.

After the fifty days had passed, Pizarro started preparations for the return  to Hispaniola, when Enciso's ship arrived. Balboa had gained popularity among  the crew because of his charisma and his knowledge of the region. By contrast  Fernández de Enciso was not well liked by the men: many disapproved of his order  to return to San Sebastián, especially after discovering, once they had arrived,  that the settlement had been completely destroyed and that the natives were  already waiting for them, leading to a series of relentless attacks.

The founding  of Santa María

Balboa suggested that the settlement of San Sebastián be moved to the region  of Darién, to the west of the Gulf of Urabá, where  the soil was more fertile and the natives were less warlike. Fernández de Enciso  gave serious consideration to this suggestion, and the regiment later went to  Darién, where the native cacique (chieftain) Cémaco had 500 warriors  waiting, ready for battle. The Spanish, fearful of the large number of enemy  combatants, made a vow to the Virgen de la Antigua, venerated in Seville, that they would name a settlement in  the region after her should they prevail. It was a difficult battle for both  sides, but, by a stroke of luck, the Spanish came out victorious.

Cémaco, together with his warriors, abandoned the town and headed for the  jungle. The Spanish plundered the houses and gathered a treasure-trove of golden  ornaments. Balboa kept his vow, and, in September 1510, founded the first  permanent settlement on mainland American soil, and called it Santa María la Antigua del Darién.

Mayor of Santa  María

The victory of the Spanish over the natives and the founding of Santa María  la Antigua del Darién, now located in a relatively calm region, earned Balboa  authority and respect among his companions. They were increasingly hostile  toward Alcalde Mayor Fernández de Enciso, whom they considered a greedy despot  because of the restrictions he imposed on their appropriation of the natives'  gold.

Balboa took advantage of the situation, acting as the spokesman for the  disgruntled settlers. He removed Fernández de Enciso from the position of alcalde mayor, using the following legal manoeuvre: de Enciso was now  controlling an area in Veragua, to the west of the Gulf of Urabá; since he was  substituting for Alonso de Ojeda, his mandate was illegitimate, because the  governor of Veragua was Diego de Nicuesa, not de Ojeda; therefore, Fernández de  Enciso should be deposed and arrested. After de Enciso's ouster, a more open government was established  and a municipal council was elected (the first in the Americas). Two alcaldes   were appointed: Martín Samudio and Vasco Núñez de Balboa.

Shortly after this, a flotilla led by Rodrigo Enrique de Colmenares  arrived in Santa María. His objective was to find de Nicuesa, who was also  facing some difficulties in the north of Panamá. When de Colmenares learned  about the recent events, he convinced the town's settlers that they should  submit to the authority of de Nicuesa, since their land was under his  jurisdiction. Enrique de Colmenares invited two representatives, to be named by  the local government, to travel with his flotilla and offer de Nicuesa authority  over the city. The two representatives were Diego de Albites and Diego del  Corral.

Governor of Veragua

 
Tierra Firme 1513 - Castilla de Oro

Enrique de Colmenares found de Nicuesa near the town of Nombre de Dios, badly wounded and with few men  remaining, on account of a skirmish with local natives. After his rescue,  Governor de Nicuesa heard about Balboa's exploits, the chieftain Cémaco's  bounty, and Santa María's prosperity. He vowed that he would punish Balboa as  soon as he gained control of the city, since he regarded his actions as a  challenge to his authority in Veragua.

A certain Lope de Olano, who was jailed together with  other malcontents, persuaded Santa María's representatives that they would make  a serious error in handing control over to de Nicuesa, whom he described as  cruel, greedy, and able to singlehandedly destroy the city's prosperity. With  this evidence, de Albites and del Corral fled to Darién ahead of de Nicuesa and  informed Balboa and the municipal authorities of the governor's intentions.

When de Nicuesa arrived at the city's port, a mob appeared, and the ensuing  disturbance prevented the governor from disembarking into the city. De Nicuesa  insisted on being received, no longer as governor, but as a simple soldier, but  still the colonists did not allow him to disembark. He and 17 others were forced  to board an unseaworthy boat with few supplies, and were put out to sea on March  1, 1511. The ship disappeared, leaving no trace of de Nicuesa and his men. In  this way, Balboa became governor (gobernador ) of Veragua.

Conquistador

 
Balboa setting his dogs upon Indian practitioners of homosexuality (1594) engraving from  the New York Public Library. The  rendering was by the Flemish Protestant artist Theodor de Bry.

With the title of governor came absolute authority in Santa María and all of  Veragua. One of Balboa's first acts as governor was the trial of Fernández de  Enciso, accused of usurping the governor's authority. De Enciso was sentenced to  prison and his possessions were confiscated. However, he was to remain  imprisoned only for a short time: Balboa set him free under the condition that  he return immediately to Hispaniola and from there to Spain. With him on the  same ship were two representatives from Balboa, who were to inform the colonial  authorities of the situation, and request more men and supplies to continue the  conquest of Veragua.

Balboa continued defeating various tribes and befriending others, exploring  rivers, mountains, and sickly swamps, while always searching for gold and slaves and enlarging his territory. He was also  able to quell revolts among those of his men who challenged this authority, and,  through force, diplomacy, and negotiation, he earned a certain respect and fear  among the natives. In a letter addressed to the King of Spain, he expressed,  somewhat ironically, that he had to act as a conciliatory force during the  course of his expeditions.

He succeeded in planting corn, received fresh supplies from Hispaniola  and Spain, and got his men used to life as explorers in the new territories.  Balboa managed to collect a great deal of gold, much of it from the ornaments  worn by the native women, and the rest obtained by violence. In 1513, he wrote a  lengthy letter to the King of Spain, requesting more men (who were already  acclimatized) from Hispaniola, weapons, supplies, carpenters versed in  shipbuilding, and all the necessary materials for the building of a shipyard. In a subsequent letter, from 1515, he  would refer to his humanitarian policies regarding the natives, while at the  same time recommending extreme severity in dealing with cannibals and violent tribes.

At the end of 1512 and the first months of 1513, he arrived in a region  dominated by the cacique Careta, whom he easily defeated and then  befriended. Careta was baptized and became one of Balboa's chief  allies; he ensured the survival of the settlers by promising to supply the  Spaniards with food. Balboa then proceeded on his journey, arriving in the lands  of Careta's neighbour and rival, cacique Ponca, who fled to the mountains  with his people, leaving his village open to the plundering of the Spaniards and  Careta's men. Days later, the expedition arrived in the lands of cacique  Comagre, fertile but reportedly dangerous terrain. However, Balboa was received  peacefully and even invited to a feast in his honor; Comagre, like Careta, was  then baptized.

 
Balboa's travel route to the South Sea, 1513

It was in Comagre's lands that Balboa first heard of "the other sea." It  started with a squabble among the Spaniards, unsatisfied by the meager amounts  of gold they were being allotted. Comagre's eldest son, Panquiaco, angered by  the Spaniards' avarice, knocked over the scales used to measure gold and  exclaimed: "If you are so hungry for gold that you leave your lands to cause  strife in those of others, I shall show you a province where you can quell this  hunger". Panquiaco told them of a kingdom to the south, where people were so  rich that they ate and drank from plates and goblets made of gold, but that the  conquerors would need at least a thousand men to defeat the tribes living inland  and those on the coast of "the other sea".

European discovery of the Pacific Ocean

The unexpected news of a new kingdom, rich in gold, was received by Balboa  with great interest. He returned to Santa María at the beginning of 1513 to  recruit more men from Hispaniola. It was there that he learned that Fernández de  Enciso had told the colonial authorities what had happened at Santa María. After  seeing that there would be no assistance from Hispaniola, Balboa sent Enrique de  Colmenares directly to Spain to look for help.

While the expedition to the South Sea (the name at the time of the Pacific  Ocean) was being organized in Santa María, some explorers travelled ten leagues  (around 50 km or 30 miles) up the Atrato River toward the interior, but came back  empty-handed. Balboa's request for men and supplies had been denied: Enciso's  case was by then widely known in the Spanish court. Therefore, Balboa had no choice  but to carry out his expedition with the few resources that he had on hand in  Santa María.

 
Balboa claiming possession of the South Sea

Using information given by various friendly caciques, Balboa started  his journey across the Isthmus of Panama on September 1, 1513,  together with 190 Spaniards, a few native guides, and a pack of dogs. Using a  small brigantine and ten native canoes, they sailed along the coast and made  landfall in cacique Careta's territory. On September 6, the expedition  continued, now reinforced with 1,000 of Careta's men, and entered cacique  Ponca's land. Ponca had reorganized and attacked, but he was defeated and forced  to ally himself with Balboa. After a few days, and with several of Ponca's men,  the expedition entered the dense jungle on September 20, and, with some  difficulty, arrived four days later in the lands of cacique Torecha, who  ruled in the village of Cuarecuá. In this village, a fierce battle took place,  during which Torecha was defeated and killed in battle. His followers decided to  join the expedition. However, the group was by then exhausted and several men  were badly wounded, so many decided to stay in Cuarecuá to regain their  strength.

The few men that continued the journey with Balboa entered the mountain range  along the Chucunaque River the next day. According to  information from the natives, the South Sea could be seen from the summit of  this range. Balboa went ahead and, before noon that day, September 25, he  reached the summit and saw, far away in the horizon, the waters of the  undiscovered sea. The emotions were such that the others eagerly joined in to  show their joy at Balboa's "discovery". Andrés de Vera, the expedition's  chaplain, intoned the Te Deum, while the men erected stone  pyramids, and engraved crosses on the barks of trees with their swords, to mark  the place where the "discovery" of the South Sea was made.

Possession and conquest of the South Sea

After the epic moment of "discovery", the expedition descended from the  mountain range towards the sea, arriving in the lands of cacique Chiapes,  who was defeated after a brief battle and invited to join the expedition. From  Chiapes' land, three groups departed in the search for routes to the coast. The  group headed by Alonso Martín reached the shoreline two days later. They took a  canoe for a short reconnaissance trip, thus becoming the first Europeans to  navigate the Pacific Ocean off the coast of New World. Back in Chiapes' domain,  Martín informed Balboa, who, with 26 men, marched towards the coast. Once there,  Balboa raised his hands, his sword in one and a standard with the image of the  Virgin Mary in the other, walked knee-deep into the ocean, and claimed  possession of the new sea and all adjoining lands in the name of the Spanish  sovereigns.

After traveling more than 110 km (68 mi), Balboa named the bay where they  ended up San Miguel, because they arrived on  September 29, the feast day of the archangel Michael. He named the new sea Mar del Sur, since they had traveled south  to reach it.

Balboa's main purpose in the expedition was the search for the gold-rich  kingdoms promised by Panquiaco. To this end, he crossed through the lands of caciques Coquera and Tumaco, defeating them easily and taking their riches  of gold and pearls. He then learned that pearls were  abundant in the islands ruled by Terarequí, a powerful and feared cacique.  Balboa set out in several canoes towards these islands, even though it was the  beginning of October and the weather conditions were not favorable. He was  barely able to make out the islands, and named the largest one Isla Rica  (Rich Island, today known as Isla del Rey). He named the entire group Archipiélago de las Perlas, which they are  still called today.

In November, Balboa decided to return to Santa María but by a different route  in order to further expand his territory and procure more gold. He passed  through the regions of Teoca, Pacra, Bugue Bugue, Bononaima, and Chorizo,  defeating some by force and befriending others through diplomacy. A particularly  bloody battle took place against the cacique Tubanamá, whom Balboa  eventually defeated. In December, the expedition arrived back in the Caribbean  coast, by the Gulf of San Blas, a strip of land ruled by cacique Pocorosa. From there, he headed to the lands of Comagre, to find  that his elderly ally had died. His son, Panquiaco, was now the new chieftain.

From there, he crossed the lands of Ponca and Careta, to finally arrive in  Santa María on January 19, 1514, with a treasure in cotton goods, more than  100,000 castellanos worth of gold, to say nothing of the pearls. All  this, however, did not compare to the magnitude of the "discovery" of the South  Sea on behalf of Spain. Balboa commanded Pedro de Arbolancha to set sail for  Spain with news of this "discovery". He also sent one fifth of the treasure to  the king, as the law required.

Disputes with Pedro  Arias

The accusations of Fernández de Enciso, whom Balboa had deposed, and the  removal and disappearance of Governor de Ojeda, forced the king to name Pedro Arias de Ávila as governor of the newly  created province of Castilla de Oro. Arias, better known as Pedrarias Dávila and who would later become notorious for his cruelty, took  control of Veragua and managed to calm the situation. Pedrarias arrived from Arbolancha, Spain with an expedition of 1,500  men and 17 ships, thereby ensuring that Balboa's requests to the crown for more  men and supplies were met. This would be to that date the largest and most  complete expedition to leave Spain for the New World.

 
Statue of Balboa in Madrid (E.  Pérez, 1954).

Pedrarias was accompanied on this expedition by Gaspar de Espinosa, who held the office of alcalde mayor; the very same Martín Fernández de Enciso whom Balboa had  forced into exile, now as Chief Constable (Alguacil Mayor);[6]  the royal officer and chronicler Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo; as well as several  captains, among them Juan de Ayora, Pedrarias' lieutenant. There  were also several clerics, most notably the Franciscan friar Juan de Quevedo, appointed bishop of Santa María. There were also women  among the travellers, among them Isabel de Bobadilla, Pedrarias' wife. More than  500 men died from starvation or due to the inclemencies of the weather soon  after reaching Darién. Fernández de Oviedo was to note that knights covered in silk and brocade, who  distinguished themselves valiantly in the Italian Wars, would die, consumed by hunger and  fever, due to the nature of the tropical jungle.

Balboa received Pedrarias and his representatives in July 1514 and accepted  resignedly his replacement as governor and mayor. The settlers, however, did not  like the change and some were planning to take up arms against Pedrarias, even  as Balboa showed respect to the new colonial authorities.

As soon as Pedrarias took charge, Gaspar de Espinosa had Balboa arrested and  tried "in absentia", sentencing him to pay reparations to Fernández de Enciso  and others. He was, however, found innocent of the charge of murdering de  Nicuesa, so he was freed shortly afterwards.

Due to overpopulation in Santa María, Pedrarias called on several  expeditionaries to search for new locations fit for settlement. Balboa requested  of Pedrarias that he be allowed to explore the Dabaibe region, along the Atrato river, for there was a rumour of the  existence of a temple filled with vast riches there. However, this expedition  turned out to be a failure, leaving Balboa wounded due to constant attacks by  the region's natives.

This setback, however, did not deter Balboa's ambitions of returning to  explore the South Sea. Secretly, he arranged to recruit a contingent of men from Cuba. The ship carrying them berthed just outside Santa María, and  its caretaker informed Balboa of their arrival, receiving in return 70 gold  castellanos. Pedrarias, however, soon found out about the ship; furious, he had  Balboa arrested, took away all his men and was planning to lock him up in a  wooden cage. He was held back from doing this by Bishop de Quevedo, who appealed  to him not to abuse his power on Balboa.

Luckily for Balboa, around that time the Spanish Crown would finally  recognize his valuable services. The king bestowed on him the titles of "Adelantado  of the South Seas" and "Gobernador of Panama and Coiba". On top of this, the King instructed  Pedrarias to show Balboa the greatest respect and to consult him on all matters  pertaining to the conquest and government of Castilla de Oro. Because of all  this, Pedrarias was to release and exonerate Balboa, lifting all charges brought  up against him in the matter of the clandestine recruitment of an expeditionary  party.

Downfall and death

At that point, the rivalry between Balboa and Pedrarias ceased abruptly, due  in large part to the intercession of Bishop de Quevedo and Isabel de Bobadilla,  who arranged for Balboa's marriage to María de Peñalosa, one of Pedrarias'  daughters, who was in Spain. Shortly thereafter, the bishop left for Spain and  the marriage took place by proxy (they would never meet because she was in Spain  and Balboa would never return to his homeland). The friendship between Pedrarias  and Balboa lasted barely two years, but in that time Balboa came to show great  filial affection toward his father-in-law.

 
Execution of Balboa

Balboa wished to continue exploring the South Sea, but Pedrarias did  everything possible to delay his departure. However, in light of the new  relationship between them, Pedrarias could not stop him indefinitely, and he  finally consented to let Balboa go on his new expedition, giving him license to  explore for a year and a half.

In 1519, Balboa moved to Acla with 300 men and, using the manpower of the natives and African  slaves, managed to gather the materials necessary to fashion new ships. He  traveled up to the Rio Balsas (Balsas River), where he had four  ships built. He travelled 74 km (46 mi) through the Pacific, surrounding the  Pearl Islands and the coasts of Darién, up to Puerto Piñas, so named  because of the large amounts of pineapples (piñas) he found there. He  then returned to Acla, to continue the construction of sturdier ships.

However, on his return, Pedrarias wrote warm letters urging Balboa to meet  him as soon as possible. Balboa quickly obeyed. Halfway to Santa María, he  encountered a group of soldiers commanded by Francisco Pizarro, who arrested him in the name  of the governor and accused him of trying to usurp Pedrarias' power and create a  separate government in the South Sea. Outraged, Balboa denied all charges and  demanded that he be taken to Spain to stand trial; Pedrarias, however, together  with Martin Enciso, ordered that the trial take place without delay.

Balboa's trial began in January, 1519, and on the fifteenth of that month,[citation  needed] de Espinosa sentenced him to death by  decapitation. Four of Balboa's friends, Fernando de Argüello, Luis Botello,  Hernán Muñoz, and Andrés Valderrábano, accused as accomplices, were sentenced to  the same fate. The sentence was to be carried out in Acla, to show that the  conspiracy had its roots in that colony.

As Balboa and his friends were being led to the block, the town crier  announced: "This is the justice that the King and his lieutenant Pedro Arias de  Ávila impose upon these men, traitors and usurpers of the Crown's territories."  Balboa could not restrain his indignation and replied: "Lies, lies! Never have  such crimes held a place in my heart, I have always loyally served the King,  with no thought in my mind but to increase his dominions." Pedrarias observed  the execution, hidden behind a platform. The executioner beheaded Balboa and his  four friends with an axe. Balboa's head did not come off clean on the first try;  it took three.[citation  needed] Their heads remained in public display for  several days, as a sign of Pedrarias' might.

The final location of Balboa's remains is unknown, partly because there is no  record of what happened in Acla after the execution.

It was Gaspar de Espinosa, Pedrarias' underling, who sailed the South Sea  aboard the very ships that Balboa had commissioned. In 1520, Ferdinand Magellan renamed the sea the Pacific Ocean because of its calm waters.

 
Monument of Vasco Núñez de Balboa in Panama City.

Legacy

Although Balboa suffered a premature death, his actions and deeds are  remembered by history as the first European to cross America. Several parks and avenues throughout Panama bear the name "Vasco Núñez de Balboa,"  and a number of monuments honour his "discovery" of the South Sea. The  Panamanian currency is called the Balboa, and his likeness appears on the obverse  of most Panamanian coins. His name is also attached to Panama City's main port, Balboa (the Pacific entrance to the Panama Canal) and the Balboa District within Panamá Province to which the Pearl Islands that he discovered belong. In San Francisco, California, USA, Balboa's name  appears among a row of avenues which are named after Spanish conquistadors and  in a San Francisco neighborhood Balboa Park. There is also a large park (Balboa  Park) adjacent to downtown San Diego, California which was named after Balboa in  1910.[8]  Balboa's name is also honoured in Madrid with a street and an underground  station.

One of the highest orders granted by the Panamanian government to  distinguished and outstanding figures, foreign and domestic, is the Orden Vasco Núñez de Balboa, in various  degrees, as established by Law 27 from 28 January 1933.

The lunar crater Balboa was named after him.

Balboa appears in the lyrics to The Great Nations of Europe by composer/singer Randy Newman.

 
Balboa 1-cent, 1913 issue

Vasco Nunez de Balboa was featured on the 1-cent denomination of the  Panama-Pacific Exposition of 1913. The 1-cent Balboa paid the one-cent card  rate, and it was used in combination with other denominations to meet large  weight and foreign destinations. The Bureau of Engraving and Printing issued  over 330 million of these to the public.


    

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After your order has shipped, you will be left positive feedback, and that date should be used as a basis of estimating an arrival date.

After you shipped the order, how long will the mail take?
USPS First Class mail takes about 3-5 business days to arrive in the U.S., international shipping times cannot be estimated as they vary from country to country. I am not responsible for any USPS delivery delays, especially for an international package.

What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic?
Each of the items sold here, is provided with a Certificate of Authenticity, and a Lifetime Guarantee of Authenticity, issued by a world-renowned numismatic and antique expert that has identified over 10000 ancient coins and has provided them with the same guarantee. You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing.

Compared to other certification companies, the certificate of  authenticity is a $25-50 value. So buy a coin today and own a piece  of history, guaranteed.

Is there a money back guarantee?
I offer a 30 day unconditional money back guarantee. I stand  behind my coins and would be willing to exchange your order for  either store credit towards other coins, or refund, minus shipping  expenses, within 30 days from the receipt of your order. My goal is  to have the returning customers for a lifetime, and I am so sure in  my coins, their authenticity, numismatic value and beauty, I can  offer such a guarantee.

Is there a number I can call you with questions about my  order?

You can contact me directly via ask seller a question and request my  telephone number, or go to my About Me Page to get my contact information only in regards to  items purchased on .

When should I leave feedback?
Once you receive your  order, please leave a positive. Please don't leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. Also, if you sent an email, make sure to check for my reply in your messages before claiming that you didn't receive a response. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service.

Listing Information

Listing TypeGallery Listing
Listing ID#155222894
Start TimeWed 01 Mar 2017 17:14:53 (EDT)
Close TimeRun Until Sold
Starting BidFixed Price (no bidding)
Item ConditionSee Descr.
Bids0
Views31
Dispatch TimeNext Day
Quantity1
LocationUnited States
Auto ExtendNo

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