Greek city of
Bronze 13mm (3.15 grams) Struck 400-350 B.C.
Reference: Sear 1636; B.M.C. 3.65
Horse prancing right; monogram beneath.
ΜΑΡΩΝΙΤΩΝ around three sides of linear square containing vine; monogram beneath.
You are bidding on the exact item pictured,
provided with a Certificate of Authenticity and Lifetime Guarantee of
Maroneia is a municipality in the
Population 7,644 (2001). The seat of the municipality is in
In legend, it was said to have been founded by Maron, a son
or even a companion of
Pseudo-Scymnus it was founded by
Chios in the
first half of the 6th century BC.
Pliny, its ancient name was Ortagures.
It was located on the hill of Aghios Gheorgis, and archaeological findings date
it as a much older and as a pure
Maroneia was close to the
Ismaros mentioned by
Homer in the
Some scholars identify Maroneia with his Ismaros.
Odysseus plundering the city but sparing Maron, whom he identifies as a
Maron presents Odysseus with a gift of
wine, as well as
with gold and silver.
In the era of
Ancient Greece and
Maroneia was famous for its wine production. The wine was esteemed everywhere;
it was said to possess the odor of
nectar, and to
be capable of mixture with twenty or more times its quantity with water.
That the people of Maroneia venerated
we learn not just from its famous Dionysian Sanctuary, the foundations of which
can still be seen today, but also from the city's coins.
200 BC it was
Philip V of Macedon, who vented his rage by slaughtering a great number of
the city's inhabitants.
Roman Republic subsequently granted Maroneia to
Attalus, King of
but almost immediately revoked their gift and declared it a free city.
Thrace (demonym Thracian
Trakya) is a historical and geographic area in southeast
Europe. As a geographical concept, Thrace
designates a region bounded by the
Balkan Mountains on the north,
Rhodope Mountains and the
Aegean Sea on the south, and by the
Black Sea and the
Sea of Marmara on the east. The areas it
comprises are southeastern
Thrace), and the European part of
Thrace). The biggest part of Thrace is part of present-day Bulgaria.
In Turkey, it is also called
Rumelia. The name comes from the
Thracians, an ancient
Indo-European people inhabiting Southeastern
The historical boundaries of Thrace have varied. Noteworthy is the fact that,
at an early date, the
ancient Greeks employed the term "Thrace" to
refer to all of the territory which lay north of
Thessaly inhabited by the
a region which "had no definite boundaries" and to which other regions (like
Macedonia and even
Scythia) were added.
In one ancient Greek source, the very Earth is divided into "Asia, Libya, Europa
As the knowledge of world geography of the Greeks broadened, the term came to be
more restricted in its application: Thrace designated the lands bordered by the
Danube on the north, by the Euxine Sea (Black
Sea) on the east, by northern
Macedonia in the south and by the
Illyrian lands (i.e.
Illyria) to the west.
This largely coincided with the Thracian
Odrysian kingdom, whose borders varied in time.
During this time, specifically after the Macedonian conquest, the region's old
border with Macedonia was shifted from the
Struma River to the
This usage lasted until the Roman conquest. Henceforth, (classical) Thrace
referred only to the tract of land largely covering the same extent of space as
the modern geographical region. In its early period, the
Roman province of Thrace was of this extent,
but after the administrative reforms of the late 3rd century, Thracia's much
reduced territory became the six small provinces which constituted the
Diocese of Thrace. The medieval
Thrace contained only what today is
The largest cities of Thrace are:
İstanbul (European side),
Most of the Bulgarian and Greek population are Christians, while most of the
Turkish inhabitants of Thrace are Muslims.
ancient Greek mythology
Ancient Greek mythology provides them with a
mythical ancestor, named
Thrax, son of the war-god
Ares, who was said to reside in Thrace. The Thracians appear in
Trojan allies, led by
Peiros. Later in the Iliad,
Rhesus, another Thracian king, makes an
Cisseus, father-in-law to the Trojan elder
Antenor, is also given as a Thracian king.
Homeric Thrace was vaguely defined, and stretched from the River
Axios in the west to the
Black Sea in the east. The
Catalogue of Ships mentions three separate
contingents from Thrace: Thracians led by Acamas and Peiros, from
Cicones led by
Euphemus, from southern Thrace, near
Ismaros; and from the city of
Sestus, on the Thracian (northern) side of the
Hellespont, which formed part of the contingent led by
Asius. Greek mythology is replete with Thracian
Oeagrus (father of
Orpheus). In addition to the tribe that Homer
calls Thracians, ancient Thrace was home to numerous other tribes, such as the
Thrace is also mentioned in Ovid's Metamorphoses in the episode of
Philomela, Procne, and
Tereus. Tereus, the King of Thrace, lusts after
his sister-in-law, Philomela. He kidnaps her, holds her captive, rapes her, and
cuts out her tongue. Philomela manages to get free, however. She and her sister,
Procne, plot to get revenge, by killing Itys (son of Tereus and Procne) and
serving him to his father for dinner. At the end of the myth, all three turn
into birds—Procne, a swallow; Philomela, a nightingale; and Tereus, a
Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak
The indigenous population of Thrace was a people called the
Thracians, divided into numerous tribal groups.
Thracian troops were known to accompany neighboring ruler
Alexander the Great when he crossed the
Hellespont which abuts Thrace, and took on the
Persian Empire of the day.
The Thracians did not describe themselves as such and Thrace and
Thracians are simply the names given them by the Greeks.
Divided into separate tribes, the Thracians did not manage to form a lasting
political organization until the
Odrysian state was founded in the 4th century
Illyrians, Thracian tribes of the mountainous
regions fostered a locally ruled warrior tradition, while the tribes based in
the plains were purportedly more peaceable. Recently discovered funeral mounds
in Bulgaria suggest that Thracian kings did rule regions of Thrace with distinct
Thracian national identity.
During this period, a subculture of
ascetics called the
Ctistae lived in Thrace, where they served as
philosophers, priests and prophets.
By the mid 5th century, as the Roman Empire began to crumble, Thracia fell
from the authority of Rome and into the hands of Germanic tribal rulers. With
the fall of Rome, Thracia turned into a battleground territory for the better
part of the next 1,000 years. The eastern successor of the
Roman Empire in the Balkans, the
Byzantine Empire, retained control over Thrace
until the 8th century when the northern half of the entire region was
incorporated into the
First Bulgarian Empire. Byzantium regained
Thrace in the late 10th century and administered it as a
theme, until the Bulgarians regained
control of the northern half at the end of the 12th century. Throughout the 13th
century and the first half of the 14th century, the region was changing in the
hands of the Bulgarian and the Byzantine Empire(excl. Constantinopole). In 1265
the area suffered a Mongol raid from the
Golden Horde, led by
Nogai Khan. In 1352, the
Turks conducted their first incursion into the
region subduing it completely within a matter of two decades and occupying it
for five centuries.
Congress of Berlin in 1878, Northern Thrace was
incorporated into the semi-autonomous Ottoman province of
Eastern Rumelia, which united with Bulgaria in
1885. The rest of Thrace was divided among Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey at the
beginning of the 20th century, following the
World War I and the
Greco-Turkish War. Today Thracian is a
strong regional identity in Greece, Turkey, Bulgaria and other neighbouring
Famous Thracians and people from Thrace
Ottoman Sultan, born at
Edirne in Thrace; he was the Sultan who
conquered Constantinople, marking the end of the Middle Ages.
Bayezid II Ottoman Sultan
Spartacus was a Thracian auxiliary soldier
Roman army who deserted but was captured
and then enslaved by the Romans. He led a large slave uprising in what is
now Italy in 73–71 BC. His army of escaped
gladiators and slaves defeated several
Roman legions in what is known as the
Third Servile War.
Belisaurius, one of the most successful
Generals of the
Roman Empire, was born in the borderlands
between Thrace and
Ancient Greek mythology,
Orpheus was the chief representative of the
art of song and playing the
Democritus was a Greek philosopher and
Abdera, Thrace (c. 460–370 BC.) His main
contribution is the
atomic theory, the belief that all matter
is made up of various imperishable indivisible elements which he called
Herodicus was a Greek physician of the
fifth century BC who is considered the founder of
sports medicine. He is believed to have
been one of
Protagoras was a Greek philosopher from
Abdera, Thrace (c. 490–420 BC.) An expert
rhetorics and subjects connected to virtue
and political life, often regarded as the first
sophist. He is known primarily for three
claims (1) that man is the measure of all things, often interpreted as a
moral relativism, (2) that he could make
the "worse (or weaker) argument appear the better (or stronger)" (see
Sophism) and (3) that one could not tell if
the gods existed or not (see
- A number of
Roman emperors of the 3rd-5th century were
Thraco-Roman backgrounds (Maximinus
Leo the Thracian, etc.). These emperors
were elevated via a military career, from the condition of common soldiers
in one of the
Roman legions to the foremost positions of